Zoompf's Web Performance Blog

Note: Archived Content

This is the archived version of the Zoompf blog. Since our acquisition by Rigor, all our new research and posts on web performance are being published on The Rigor Blog

Optimizing Gradients

 Billy Hoffman on March 23, 2010. Category: Optimization

Gradient backgrounds are a common visual element on modern websites. And while you can use browser specific CSS extensions to directly create gradient backgrounds with pure CSS the much more common method is to use an image. Traditionally, when a web designer wants to create a gradient to a webpage, they use a program like Photoshop or The Gimp to create a small image containing the gradient they want. They then use CSS to set this image as the background for a specific element and then use repeat-x or repeat-y to spread the gradient image along the entire length of the element. This provides us with the chance for a new performance optimization technique!

Consider the image above that a Sven, a long time Zoompf user, sent in. This image is 38 pixels wide and 91 pixels tall. As you can see there is a gradient that goes from dark gray at the top of the image to white at the bottom. This image is used on the website to provide a background gradient for section titles. The website’s CSS uses the repeat-x directive to fill the section title along the X-axis with the gradient. Which raises the question “Why is the image 39 pixels wide?” After all, the change in colors is along the Y-axis (from the top of the image to the bottom). The width of the image is meaningless. It adds nothing to the image. If you were to open this image in a program like Photoshop you would see that every pixel has the same color as the pixel to it’s left or right. It cannot be any other way. Otherwise when the image is repeated one after another along the X-axis you would see spots or seams where the colors were different. Since CSS is used to repeat this image in the X-axis direction, there is no reason for the image to be larger than 1 pixel wide! Converting the 38×91 pixel image to a 1×91 reduces the size of the file by over 65%!

Let’s try a real example. Consider this gradient from Yahoo. This image is actually a sprite of several different gradients! It is 5 pixels wide and 3302 pixels tall and is 3466 bytes. Again, we can confirm that the extra 4 pixels in width provide no value. All the pixels in this image have the same color value as the pixels to the right or left. Using Photoshop, we cropped the image to be 1×3302 pixels with a size of 1920 bytes. This is a savings of 45% with absolutely no loss to image quality or user experience!

We performed this optimization on a sample of 300 or so gradient images. On average we reduced file size by 30-70%. PNG images tended to see an improvement of 10-30%.

Browser Performance Impact

Are there any negative effects to using gradient images that are only 1 pixel in length along the axis they repeat? This is what Sven wanted to know when he emailed the image. Consider an image that’s 32 x 300 images. It is repeated along the X-axis using CSS and is used as a background for a <DIV> that is 96 pixels wide. To “draw” an image on the screen, the fundamental operation the browser is doing is copying the bytes of the image into the buffer of bytes that display the screen. That means to draw the gradient background the browser has to copy the bytes of the 32 x 300 pixel image into the video memory 3 times (because 3 times 32 is 96). Consider if we had a 1 x 100 pixel image. The browser has to copy the bytes of the 1 x 300 pixel image into the video memory 96 times (because 1 times 96 is 96). So, it would seem that using a 1 x 100 pixel image is 32 times slower than using a 32 x 100 pixel image. Remember we aren’t talking about browser repaint or reflow events (where the browser has to recalculate where all the text and images goes and then redraw). We are talking purely about how quickly the computer can draw an image.

It sounds like we might have a performance problem.

Only we don’t. Computers can move data around very quickly. We are talking nanoseconds (10^-9). Meanwhile, transferring data over Internet connections is typically measured in millisecond or microseconds (10 ^ -3 or 10 ^ -6). So even though smaller images may make the browser do more work, even 32 times more work, the difference is so infinitesimal that they are not noticeable to the user. The time saving you will get by reducing the amount of data you have to send over the slow network however is impactful and beneficial.


The fact that gradients using images rely on CSS to repeat the image allows us to reduce the width or height of the gradient image without any visual difference. Performance is improved because we have reduced the size of the image. This technique can be applied to all images that are used as gradients. If a gradient image repeats along the X-axis it should only be 1 pixel wide. If a gradient image repeats along the Y-axis it should only be 1 pixel tall. As we saw the the example gradient from Yahoo, even gradient images that are already quite small in terms of dimensions can drastically reduce their size even further by reducing the width or height to 1 pixel.

Want to see what performance problems your website has? Oversized Gradient Image is just one of the 300+ web performance issues Zoompf detects when scanning your web applications. Get your instant free web performance assessment at Zoompf.com today!


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